Contact Information

  • Lab: +1 301 402 3519
  • Fax: +1 301 480 1952

Overview of the Lab

The overarching mission of the lab is to understand the neural basis of cognitive and emotional regulation and how these critical mental processes are mediated by discrete neural circuits and moderated in function by genetic variation and environmental insults, including stress and alcohol.

Selected Publications


Hitzemann R, Bergeson SE, Berman AE, Bubier JZ, Chesler EJ, Finn DA, Hein L. Hoffman P, Holmes A, Kisby BR, Lockwood D, Lodowski KH, McManus M, Owen JA, Ozburn AR, Panthagani P, Ponomarev I, Saba L, Phillips TJ. (2021) Sex Differences in the Brain Transcriptome Related to Alcohol Effects and Alcohol Use Disorder Biological Psychiatry in press

Hagihara KM, Bukalo O, Zeller M, Aksoy-Aksel A, Karalis N, Limoges A, Rigg T, Campbell T, Mendez A, Weinholtz C, Mahn M, Zweifel LS, Palmiter RD, Ehrlich I, Lüthi A, Holmes A. (2021) Intercalated amygdala clusters orchestrate a switch in fear state. Nature Online ahead of print

Piantadosi PT, Halladay LR, Radke AK, Holmes A. (2021) Advances in understanding meso-cortico-limbic-striatal systems mediating risky reward seeking. J Neurochem Online ahead of print. PubMed

Zhang WH, Zhang JY, Holmes A, Pan BX. (2021) Amygdala Circuit Substrates for Stress Adaptation and Adversity. Biol Psychiatry 8:S0006-3223(21)00035-4 PubMed

Nonaka M, Taylor WW, Bukalo O, Tucker LB, Fu AH, Kim Y, McCabe JT, Holmes A. (2021) Behavioral and myelin-related abnormalities following blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury in mice. J Neurotrauma Epub ahead of print. PubMed

Bukalo O, Nonaka M, Weinholtz C, Mendez A, Taylor W, Holmes A. (2021) Effects of optogenetic photoexcitation of infralimbic cortex inputs to the basolateral amygdala on conditioned fear and extinction. Behavioural Brain Research 396:112913 PubMed


Glover LR, McFadden KM, Bjorni M, Smith SR, Rovero NG, Oreizi-Esfahani S, Yoshida T, Postle AF, Nonaka M, Halladay LR, Holmes A. (2020) A prefrontal-bed nucleus of the stria terminalis circuit limits fear to uncertain threat. Elife 15;9:e60812 PubMed

Radke A, Piantadosi PT, Hall FS, Holmes A. Improved visual discrimination learning in mice with partial genetic deletion of 5-HT2B receptors. Neuroscience Letters 738:135378 PubMed

Glover L, Holmes A. (2020). Anxiety and ambiguity. Translational Neuroscience in Psychiatry. K Ressler (Ed) Oxford University Press. In press

Bergstrom H, Lieberman AG, Graybeal C, Lipkin A, Holmes A. (2020) Dorsolateral striatum engagement during reversal learning.  Learning & Memory 27:418-422 PubMed

Gunduz-Cinar O, Brockway E, Pollack G, Castillo L, Holmes A. (2020) Selective sub-nucleus effects of intra-amygdala oxytocin on fear extinction. Behavioural Brain Research 393:112798  PubMed (Media: Body's own marijuana helps us forget traumatic memories PubMed (Media: Why is drinking in moderation so difficult for some people? PubMed

Sengupta A, Holmes A. (2019) A discrete dorsal raphe to basal amygdala 5-HT circuit calibrates aversive memory. Neuron. 103(3):489-505 PubMed)

Zhang WH, Liu WZ, He Y, You WJ, Zhang JY, Xu H, Tian XL, Li BM, Mei L, Holmes A, Pan BX. (2019) Chronic stress causes projection-specific adaptation of amygdala neurons via small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel downregulation. Biological Psychiatry. 85(10):812-28. PubMed)

Ferrazzo S, Gunduz-Cinar O, Stefanova N, Pollack GA, Holmes A, Schmuckermair C, Ferraguti F. (2019) Increased anxiety-like behavior following circuit-specific catecholamine denervation in mice. Neurobiology of Disease. 125:55-66. PubMed

Holmes A. (2019) Biological clues to an enigmatic treatment for traumatic stress. Nature. 566:335-336. PubMed

Radke AK, Zweifel LS, Holmes A. (2019) NMDA receptor deletion on dopamine neurons disrupts visual discrimination and reversal learning. Neuroscience Letters. 699:109-114. PubMed

Milton AL, Holmes A. (2019) The psychopharmacology of extinction—from theory to therapy. Psychopharmacology. 236(1):1-6. PubMed

Piantadosi PT, Lieberman AG, Pickens CL, Bergstrom HC, Holmes, A. (2019) A novel multichoice touchscreen paradigm for assessing cognitive flexibility in mice. Learn. Mem. 26:24-30. PubMed

O’Connor RM, McCafferty CP, Bravo JA, Singewald N, Holmes A, Cryan JF. (2019) Increased amygdalar metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 mRNA in a genetic mouse model of impaired fear extinction. Psychopharmacology. 236(1):265-72. PubMed

Kenton JA, Castillo R, Holmes A, Brigman JL. (2018) Cortico-hippocampal GluN2B is essential for efficient visual-spatial discrimination learning in a touchscreen paradigm. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 156:60-67. PubMed

Jury NJ, Radke AK, Pati D, Kocharian A, Mishina M, Kash TL, Holmes A. (2018) NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit deletion protects against dependence-like ethanol drinking. Behav Brain Res.353:124-128. Pubmed

Zhang JY, Liu TH, He Y, Pan HQ, Zhang WH, Yin XP, Tian XL, Li BM, Wang XD, Holmes A, Yuan TF, Pan BX. (2018) Chronic stress remodels synapses in an amygdala circuit-specific manner. Biol Psychiatry. pii: S0006-3223(18)31633-0. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.06.019.  Pubmed

Lowery-Gionta EG, Crowley NA, Bukalo O, Silverstein S, Holmes A, Kash TL. (2018) Chronic stress dysregulates amygdalar output to the prefrontal cortex. Neuropharmacology.139:68-75. Pubmed

Yuan JT, Gatti DM, Philip VM, Kasparek S, Kreuzman AM, Mansky B, Sharif K, Taterra D, Taylor WM, Thomas M, Ward JO, Holmes A, Chesler EJ, Parker CC (2018) Genome-wide association for testis weight in the diversity outbred mouse population Mamm Genome. 29(5-6):310-324. Pubmed

Bukalo O, Holmes A. (2018) Everything in Its Right Place: A Prefrontal-Midbrain Circuit for Contextual Fear Discrimination. Neuron.97(4):732-733. Pubmed


Jury NJ, Pollack GA, Ward MJ, Bezek JL, Ng AJ, Pinard CR, Bergstrom HC, Holmes A. (2017) Chronic Ethanol During Adolescence Impacts Corticolimbic Dendritic Spines and Behavior. Alcohol Clin Exp Res.41(7):1298-1308. Pubmed

Patel S, Hill MN, Cheer JF, Wotjak CT, Holmes A. (2017) The endocannabinoid system as a target for novel anxiolytic drugs. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 76(Pt A):56-66.  Pubmed

Bogdan R, Salmeron BJ, Carey CE, Agrawal A, Calhoun VD, Garavan H, Hariri AR, Heinz A, Hill MN, Holmes A, Kalin NH, Goldman D. (2017) Imaging genetics and genomics in psychiatry: A critical review of progress and potential. Biol Psychiatry. pii: S0006-3223(17)30034-3. Pubmed

Radke AK, Jury NJ, Delpire E, Nakazawa K, Holmes A. (2017) Reduced ethanol drinking following selective cortical interneuron deletion of the GluN2B NMDA receptor subunit. Alcohol. 58:47-51. Pubmed

Williams RW, Holmes A. (2017) Preface to a special issue on genetic models of alcoholism and alcohol-stress interactions. Alcohol. 58:23-24. Pubmed

Lohoff FW, Sorcher JL, Rosen AD, Mauro KL, Fanelli RR, Momenan R, Hodgkinson CA, Vendruscolo LF, Koob GF, Schwandt M, George DT, Jones IS, Holmes A, Zhou Z, Xu MJ, Gao B, Sun H, Phillips MJ, Muench C, Kaminsky ZA. (2017) Methylomic profiling and replication implicates deregulation of PCSK9 in alcohol use disorder. Molecular Psychiatry. Pubmed

Marcinkiewcz CA, Mazzone CM, D'Agostino G, Halladay LR, Hardaway JA, DiBerto JF, Navarro M, Burnham N, Cristiano C, Dorrier CE, Tipton GJ, Ramakrishnan C, Kozicz T, Deisseroth K, Thiele TE, McElligott ZA, Holmes A, Heisler LK, Kash TL. (2016) Serotonin engages an anxiety and fear-promoting circuit in the extended amygdala. Nature. 537(7618):97-101 Pubmed (covered by media, e.g. Pubmed

Izquierdo A, Brigman JL, Radke AK, Rudebeck PH, Holmes A (2016) The neural basis of reversal learning: An updated perspective. Neuroscience. is external) and Pubmed

Hartley ND, Gunduz-Cinar O, Halladay L, Bukalo O, Holmes A, Patel S. (2016)  2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling impairs short-term fear extinction.  Transl Psychiatry  doi: 10.1038/tp.2016.26. Pubmed

Gunduz-Cinar O, Flynn S, Brockway E, Kaugars K, Baldi R, Ramikie TS, Cinar R, Kunos G, Patel S, Holmes A. (2015) Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction through Amygdala Endocannabinoids. Neuropsychopharmacology. doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.318. Pubmed

Radke AK, Nakazawa K, Holmes A (2015) Cortical GluN2B deletion attenuates punished suppression of food reward-seeking. Psychopharmacology.  DOI: 10.1007/s00213-015-4033-8. Pubmed

Brigman JL, Daut RA, Saksida L, Bussey TJ, Nakazawa K, Holmes A  (2015) Impaired discrimination learning in interneuronal NMDA-GluN2B mutant mice. NeuroReport. Pubmed

Thomson SM, Josey M, Holmes A, Brigman, J (2015) Conditional loss of GluNR2B in cortex and hippocampus impairs attentional set formation.  Behavioral Neuroscience.  Pubmed

Bukalo O, Pinard CR, Silverstein S, Brehm  C, Hartley NH, Whittle N, Colacicco G, Busch E, Patel S, Singewald N, Holmes (2015). Prefrontal inputs to the amygdala instruct fear extinction memory formation. Science Advances 1(6). Pubmed


Singewald N, Schmuckermair C, Whittle N, Holmes A, Ressler KJ (2014) Pharmacology of cognitive enhancers for exposure-based therapy of fear, anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Pharmacology and Therapeutics.  Pubmed

Masneuf S, Lowery-Gionta E, Colacicco G, Pleil KE, Li C, Crowley N, Flynn S, Holmes A, Kash T (2014)  Glutamatergic mechanisms associated with stress-induced amygdala excitability and anxiety-related behavior.  Neuropharmacology. Pubmed.

Radke AK, Pickens CL, Holmes A (2014) Stress and Alcohol-Drinking Behavior.”  Chapter in Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence.  6:97-105.

Daut RA, Busch EF, Ihne J, Fisher D, Mishina M, Grant S, Camp M, Holmes A (2014) Tolerance to ethanol intoxication after chronic ethanol: role of GluN2A and PSD-95.  Addiction Biology. Pubmed


Wellman CL, Camp M, Jones VM, Macpherson KP, Ihne J, Fitzgerald P, Maroun M, Drabant E, Bogdan R, Hariri AR, Holmes A (2013) Convergent effects of mouse Pet-1 deletion and human PET-1 variation on amygdala fear and threat processing.  Experimental Neurology.  Pubmed

Mar AC, Horner AE, Nilsson S, Alsiö J, Kent BA, Kim CH, Holmes A, Saksida LM, Bussey TJ (2013) The touchscreen operant platform for assessing executive function in rats and mice.  Nature Protocols. Pubmed.  Covered by NPR News: "Could Pot Help Veterans With PTSD?  Brain Scientists Say Maybe” (link is external)

Holmes A, Spanagel R, Krystal JH (2013) Glutamatergic targets for new alcohol medications.  Psychopharmacology Pubmed  Pubmed

Macpherson K, Whittle N, Camp M, Gunduz-Cinar O, Singewald N, Holmes A (2013) Temporal factors in the extinction of fear in inbred mouse strains differing in extinction efficacy.  Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 3:13. Pubmed

Kiselycznyk C, Zhang X, Huganir R, Holmes A, Svenningsson, P. (2013) Reduced phosphorylation of GluA1 subunits relates to anxiety-like behaviours in mice. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology is external), Highlighted ‘In This Issue’ Pubmed

Griebel G, Holmes A (2013) 50 years of hurdles and hope in anxiolytic drug discovery.  Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 12:667-687 is external)).  (Faculty 1000 2x ‘must read’ Pubmed


Debrouse L, Hurd B, Kiselycznyk C, Plitt A, Todaro A, Mishina M, Grant SG, Camp M, Gunduz-Cinar O, Holmes A (2012-Epub ahead of print) Probing the modulation of acute ethanol intoxication by pharmacological manipulation of the NMDAR glycine co-agonist site. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 37(2):223-33. Pubmed

Bussey TJ, Holmes A, Lyon L, Mar AC, McAllister K, Nithianantharajah J, Oomen CA, Saksida LM (2012) New translational assays for preclinical modelling of cognition in schizophrenia: the touchscreen testing method for mice and rats. Neuropharmacology 62:1191-1203. Pubmed

Karlsson RM, Adermark L, Molander A, Pereau-Lenz S, Singley E, Solomon M, Holmes A, Tanaka K, Lovinger DM, Spanagel R, Heilig M (2012) Reduced alcohol intake, lack of alcohol reward and impaired endocannabinoid signaling in mice with a deletion of the glutamate transporter GLAST. Neuropharmacology 63:181-189. Pubmed

Maroun M, Kavushansky A, Holmes A, Wellman C, Motanis H (2012) Enhanced extinction of aversive memories by high-frequency stimulation of the rat infralimbic cortex. PLoS One. 7:e35853. Pubmed

Kiselycznyk C, Hoffman D, Holmes A (2012) Effects of genetic deletion of the Kv4.2 voltage-gated potassium channel on murine anxiety-, fear- and stress-related behaviors. Biology of Mood and Anxiety Disorders 2:5. Pubmed

Camp MC, Macpherson KP, Lederle L, Graybeal C, Gaburro S, Debrouse LM, Ihne JL, Bravo JA, O'Connor RM, Ciocchi S, Wellman CL, Lüthi A, Cryan JF, Singewald N, Holmes A (2012) Genetic strain differences in learned fear inhibition associated with variation in neuroendocrine, autonomic, and amygdala dendritic phenotypes. Neuropsychopharmacology 37:1534-1547. is external)).

Barkus C, Feyder M, Graybeal C, Wright T, Wiedholz L, Izquierdo A, Kiselycznyk C, Schmitt W, Sanderson DJ, Rawlins JN, Saksida LM, Bussey TJ, Sprengel R, Bannerman D, Holmes A (2012) Do GluA1 knockout mice exhibit behavioral abnormalities relevant to the negative or cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder? Neuropharmacology 62:1263-1272. is external)). (Faculty 1000 ‘must read’ Pubmed


Kiselycznyk C, Svenningsson P, Delpire E, Holmes A (2011) Genetic, pharmacological and lesion analyses reveal a selective role for corticohippocampal GLUN2B in a novel repeated swim stress paradigm. Neuroscience 193:259-268. Pubmed

Lederle L, Weber S, Wright T, Feyder M, Brigman JL, Crombag H, Saksida LM, Bussey TJ, Holmes A (2011) Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains. PLoS One 6: e15536. is external))  Pubmed (Press release: Pubmed

Holmes A, Wellman CL (2010) Stress-induced prefrontal reorganization and executive dysfunction. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 33:773-783. Pubmed

Baganz N, Horton R, Martin K, Holmes A, Daws LC (2010) Repeated swim impairs serotonin clearance via a corticosterone-sensitive mechanism: organic cation transporter 3, the smoking gun. Journal of Neuroscience 30:15185-15195. Pubmed

Fitzgerald PJ, Barkus C, Feyder M, Wiedholz LM, Chen YC, Karlsson RM, Machado-Vieira R, Graybeal C, Sharp T, Zarate C, Harvey-White J, Du J, Sprengel R, Gass P, Bannerman D, Holmes A. (2010) Does gene deletion of AMPA GluA1 phenocopy features of schizoaffective disorder? Neurobiology of Disease 40:608-21. Pubmed

Brigman J, Harvey-White J, Izquierdo A, Saksida LM, Bussey TJ, Murphy DL, Deneris E, Holmes A (2010) Pharmacological or genetic inactivation of the serotonin transporter improves reward-based cognitive flexibility on a mouse touchscreen-based assay. Cerebral Cortex 20:1955-1963. Pubmed

Feyder M, Camp MC, Holmes A, Chen Y-C (2010) Ethanol and NMDA receptor interactions: Implications for pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Journal of Medical Sciences 30:3-10. Pubmed


Camp M, Norcross M, Whittle N, Feyder M, D’Hanis W, Yilmazer-Hanke D, Singewald N, Holmes A (2009) Impaired Pavlovian fear extinction is common across genetic lineages of the 129 inbred mouse strain. Genes, Brain & Behavior 8:744-752. Pubmed

Zhou R, Holmes A, Du J, Malkesman O, Yuan P, Wang Y, Damschroder-Williams P, Chen G, Guitart X, Manji HK (2009) Genome-wide gene expression profiling in GluR1 knockout mice: Key role of the calcium signaling pathway in glutamatergically-mediated hippocampal transmission. European Journal of Neuroscience 30:2318-2326. Pubmed


Holmes A (2008) Genetic variation in cortico-amygdala serotonin function and risk for stress-related disease. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 32:1293-1314. Pubmed (For example of media coverage of this article, see Pubmed  (Journal Club Article : Sotres-Bayon F, Corcoran KA, Peters J, Sierra-Mercado D (2008) Neural correlates of individual variability in fear extinction. The Journal of Neuroscience 28:1-3. Pubmed . (Commentary: Fisher Y, Andre VM, Cepeda C, Levine MS (2008) Dopamine-glutamate interactions at the forefront of schizophrenia research. Cell Science Reviews 5:7-16 Pubmed

Crusio WE, Goldowitz D, Holmes A, Wolfer D (2008) Standards for the publication of mouse mutant studies. Genes, Brain & Behavior 8:1-4. Pubmed

Mathur P, Graybeal C, Feyder M, Holmes A (2008) Effects of systemic treatment with the NMDA NR2B subunit antagonist, Ro 25-6981, on mouse fear memory: attenuation with ageing. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior 91:453-460 . Pubmed

Davis AR, Shields AD, Brigman J, Norcross M, McElligott ZA, Holmes A, Winder DG (2008) Alpha2-adrenergic receptor regulation of extinction of cocaine conditioned place-preference. Learning and Memory 15:667-676. Pubmed

Brigman J, Mathur P, Lu L, Williams RW, Holmes A (2008) Genetic relationship between fear- and anxiety-related behaviors in BXD recombinant inbred mice. Behavioural Pharmacology 20:204-209. Pubmed

Yang RJ, Mozhui K, Karlsson RM, Cameron HA, Williams RW, Holmes A (2008) Variation in mouse basolateral amygdala volume is associated with differences in stress reactivity and fear learning. Neuropsychopharmacology. 33:2595-2604. Pubmed

Karlsson RM, Hefner KM, Sibley DR, Holmes A (2008) Constitutive loss of dopamine D1, but not D5, receptor prevents locomotor sensitization to cocaine in mice. Psychopharmacology 200:117-127. Pubmed

Parker CC, Ponicsan H, Spencer RL, Holmes A, Johnson TE (2008) Restraint stress and exogenous corticosterone differentially alter sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol in ILS and ISS mice. Alcohol 42:477-485. Pubmed

Palachick B, Chen Y-C, Enoch AJ, Karlsson RM, Sprengel R, Mishina M, Holmes A (2008) MK-801 potentiation of ethanol intoxication is not dependent upon major NMDAR or AMPA receptor subunits. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 32:1479-1492. Journal website(link is external)

Tonelli LH, Holmes A, Postlache TT (2008) Intranasal immune challenge induces sex-dependent depressive-like behavior and cytokine expression in the brain. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1038-1048. Pubmed

Boyce-Rustay JM, Janos A, Holmes A (2008) Effects of chronic swim stress on EtOH-related behaviors in C57BL/6J, DBA/2J and BALB/cByJ mice. Behavioural Brain Research 188:133-137. Pubmed

Hefner KM, Holmes A (2007) Short-term and long-term effects of exposure to an unfamiliar male in C57BL/6J mice. Behavioural Brain Research 182:344-348. Pubmed

Hasnie FS, Wallace VC, Hefner K, Holmes A, Rice AS (2007). Mechanical and cold hypersensitivity in nerve-injured C57BL/6J mice is not associated with fear-avoidance- and depression-related behaviour. British Journal of Anaesthesia 98:816-822. Pubmed

Fisch GS, Holmes A (2007) Recent developments in the use of animal models of psychiatric disease. Behavior Genetics 37:259-263. Pubmed

Holmes A (2007) Mouse models of anxiety. In Handbook of Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse. WE Crusio, F Sluyter, RT Gerlai (Eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Mozhui K, Hamre K, Holmes A, Lu L, Williams RW (2007) Genetic and structural analysis of the mouse basolateral amygdala complex. Behavior Genetics, 37:223-243. Pubmed

Hefner KM, Holmes A (2007) Ontogeny of fear-, anxiety- and depression-related behavior across mouse adolescence. Behavioral Brain Research 176:210-215. Pubmed

Caldwell HK, Stewart S, Wiedholz LM, Millstein RA, Holmes A, Young SW, Wersinger S (2007) The acute intoxicating effects of ethanol are not dependent on the vasopressin 1a or 1b receptors. Neuropeptides 40:325-337. Pubmed


Holmes A, Cryan JF (2006) Measuring anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in the mouse. In Transgenic and Knockout Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders. GS Fisch and J Flint (Eds). Humana Press, New Jersey.

Boyce-Rustay JM, Holmes A (2006) Ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the NMDA receptor NR2A subunit. Psychopharmacology 187:455-466. Pubmed

Hariri AR, Holmes A (2006) Genetics of emotional regulation: the role of the serotonin transporter in neural function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10:182-191. Pubmed

Wrenn CC, Holmes A (2006) Galanin; a novel target for stress-related disorders. Drug News and Perspectives, 26:753-778. Pubmed

Boyce-Rustay JM, Holmes A (2006) Genetic inactivation of the NMDA NR2A subunit has anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology, 31:2405-1414. Pubmed

Karlsson R, Holmes A (2006) Galanin; a modulator of stress and emotion. Amino Acids, 31:231-239. Pubmed

Izquierdo A, Wiedholz LM, Millstein, RA, Yang, RJ, Bussey TJ, Saksida LM, Holmes A (2006) Genetic and dopaminergic modulation of reversal learning in a touchscreen-based operant procedure for mice. Behavioral Brain Research, 171:181-188. Pubmed . (News Highlight: McGown D (2006) Neurophysiology: Under the influence. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7:593 Pubmed(link is external)

Cryan, JF, Holmes A (2005) The ascent of mouse: advances in modeling human depression and anxiety. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 4:775-790. Pubmed

Kim D-K, Tolliver TJ, Huang SJ, Martin BJ, Andrews AM, Wichems C, Holmes A, Lesch K-P, Murphy DL (2005) Altered serotonin synthesis, turnover and dynamic regulation regions of mice lacking the serotonin transporter. Neuropharmacology 49:798-810. Pubmed

Holmes A, le Guisquet AM, Vogel E, Millstein RA, Leman S, Belzung C (2005) Early life genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors shaping emotionality in rodents. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 29:1335-1346. Pubmed

Boyce-Rustay JM, Holmes A (2005) Functional roles of NMDA receptor NR2A and NR2B subunits in the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol in mice. Synapse 56:222-225. Pubmed

Karlsson RM, Holmes A, Heilig M, Crawley JN (2005) Comparative profiles of centrally-administered neuropeptide Y and galanin in mouse tasks for fear and anxiety-related behaviors. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 80:427-436. Pubmed

Holmes A, Li Q, Koenig EA, Gold E, Stephenson D, Yang RY, Crawley JN (2005) Phenotypic assessment of galanin modulation of the acute behavioral effects of antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacology 178:276-285. Pubmed

Holmes A, Lachowicz JE, Sibley DR (2004) Functional specificity of dopamine receptor subtypes; recent evidence from knockout mice. Neuropharmacology 47:1117-1134. Pubmed


Murphy DL, Ren-Patterson R, Holmes A, Hall FS, Uhl G (2003) Experimental gene interaction studies with mutant mice as models for human polygenic traits and disorders. Genes, Brain and Behavior 2:350-364. Pubmed

Holmes A, Rodgers RJ (2003) Prior exposure to the elevated plus-maze sensitizes mice to the acute behavioral effects of phenelzine and fluoxetine. European Journal of Pharmacology 459:221-230. Pubmed

Holmes A, Kinney JW, Wrenn CC, Li Q, Yang RJ, Ma L, Vishwanath J, Saveedra MC, Innerfield CE, Jacoby AS, Shine J, Iismaa TP, Crawley JN (2003) Galanin GAL-R1 receptor null mutant mice display increased anxiety-like behavior specific to the elevated plus-maze test. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1031-1044. Pubmed

Holmes A, Li Q, Murphy DL, Gold E, Crawley JN (2003) Abnormal anxiety-related behavior in serotonin transporter null mutant mice; the influence of genetic background. Genes, Brain and Behavior 2:365-380. Pubmed


Holmes A, Yang RJ, Crawley JN (2002) Evaluation of an anxiety-related phenotype in galanin overexpressing transgenic mice. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 18:151-165. Pubmed

Kinney JW, Starosta G, Holmes A, Wrenn CC, Yang RJ, Harris AP, Long KC, Crawley JN (2002) Deficits in trace cued fear conditioning in galanin-treated rats and galanin-overexpressing transgenic mice. Learning and Memory 9:178-190. Pubmed

Holmes A, Wrenn CC, Harris AP, Thayer K, Crawley JN (2002) Behavioral profiles of inbred strains on novel, olfactory, spatial and emotional tests for reference memory in mice. Genes, Brain and Behavior 1:55-69. Pubmed

Williams RW, Dubnau J, Enoch MA, Flaherty L, Sluyter F, Gannon KS, Maxson SC, Riedl CAL, Williams KD, Holmes A, Bolivar VJ, Crusio WE (2002) Hot topics in behavioral and neural genetics. Genes, Brain and Behavior 2:117-130. Pubmed

Holmes A, Iles JP, Mayell SJ, Rodgers RJ (2001) Prior test experience compromises the anxiolytic efficacy of chlordiazepoxide in the mouse light/dark exploration test. Behavioral Brain Research 122:159-167. Pubmed

Holmes A (2001) Transgenic and gene knockout approaches to the study of anxiety-like behavior in mice. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 25:261-273. Pubmed


Rodgers RJ, Haller J, Holmes A, Halasz J, Walton T, Brain PF (1999) Corticosterone response to the plus-maze: high correlation with risk assessment in rats and mice. Physiology & Behavior 68:47-53. Pubmed


Holmes A, Rodgers RJ (1998) Responses of Swiss-Webster mice to repeated plus-maze experience: further evidence for a qualitative shift in emotional state? Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior 60:473-488. Pubmed

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Other Lab Resources

Section Alumni

Adriana Mendez, BS, Mount Sinai PhD Program in Neuroscience

Chase Weinholtz, BA, Washington University PhD Program in Neuroscience 

Sawyer Smith, BS, Brown University PhD Program in Pathobiology 

Tiffany Campbell, BA, DePaul University Masters in Human Computer Interaction

Tanner Rigg, BA, currently teaching English in Thailand with CIEE

Nathen Spitz, BA, currently at Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, MD Student

Mark Yde, BA, currently working at STEMCELL Technologies

Kerry McFadden, BA, currently at University College Dublin, Ireland, MA in History of Medicine Student

Mio Nonaka, PhD, currently at Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institutes of Science, Rehovot, Israel

Takayuki Yoshida, PhD, currently Assistant Professor, Department of Neuropharmacology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

Will Taylor, BA, currently at Emory University, PhD Student

Gabrielle Pollack, BA, currently at Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, NY, MD Student

Abby Lieberman,BA

Ayesha Sengupta, PhD, currently postdoctoral fellow at NIDA/NIH

Lucas Glover, PhD, currently postdoctoral fellow at John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, in Michaela Gallagher's group

Lindsay Halladay, PhD, currently Assistant Professor of Psychology, Santa Clara University,

Emma Brockway, BA, currently at the University of Texas at Austin, PhD student in Graduate School in Neuroscience

Abby Postle, BS, currently at the University of Maryland School of Medicine MD/PhD student

Adrina Kocharian, BS, currently at the University of Minnesota School of Medicine, MD/PhD student

Aaron Limoges, BS, currently at the Columbia University in the city of New York, PhD student

Elizabeth Kirby, currently working at the FDA

Anna Lipkin,BS, currently at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) PhD student

Courtney Pinard, PhD,  Manager of Educational and Career Development Programs, American Association of Immunologists

Anna Radke, PhD, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Miami University

Hadley Bergstrom, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Vassar College
LabTV Interview with Hadley Bergstrom

Katie Kaugars, BS, currently at Albert Einstein College of Medicine MD/PhD student LabTV Interview with Katie Kaugars

Nick Jury, PhD,  currently Science Policy Analyst in the Office of Science Policy, Engagement, Education, and Communications at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute within the National Institutes of Health
LabTV Interview with Nick Jury

Maxine Reger, PhD

Erica Busch, MS

Erica Sagalyn, MA, currently at The Bridge, New York City, NY

Charles Pickens, PhD, currently tenured faculty, Department of Psychology, Kansas State University

Shaun Flynn, MD, currently resident at Brown University

Munisa Bachu, BA

Marguerite Camp, BS, currently Senior Associate in the Public Sector Practice at PricewaterhouseCoopers, Washington DC

SophieMasneuf, PhD, currently post-doctoral fellow, Zurich University

Giovanni Colacicco, MD, PhD, currently Senior Scientist and Senior Lecturer, Institute of Anatomy, University of Zurich

Rachel Daut, PhD, currently postdoc at University of Colorado at Boulder

Carly Kiselycznyk, PhD, currently at Yale University

Paul Fitzgerald, PhD, currently postdoctoral fellow at University of Michigan

Carolyn Graybeal, PhD, currently a fellow at the National Academy of Sciences

Jonathan Brigman, PhD, currently Associate Professor & Regents’ Lecturer, Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico,

Lauren DePoy, PhD, currently postdoc at University of Pittsburgh

Kathryn MacPherson, BS, currently at Emory University

Daniel Fisher, BS, currently at Northwestern University

Aaron Plitt, BS, currently at University of Texas Southwestern

Alicia Izquierdo, PhD, currently Professor, Department of Psychology, Brain Research Institute, Neuroscience IDP, University of California, Los Angeles,

Janel Boyce-Rustay, PhD, currently Senior Director, Regulatory Program Management at Genentech, San Francisco

Rose-Marie Karlsson, PhD, currently at NIMH

Rachel Millstein, PhD, currently Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA

Lisa Wiedholz, BA, currently at Abbott Laboratories

Rebecca Yang, BA, currently at The Mayo Clinic Rochester

Kathryn Hefner, PhD , currently Research Assistant Professor at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD

Poonam Mathur, DO, MPH, currently Assistant Professor, University of Maryland School of Medicine

Benjamin Palachick, MD, currently surgical critical care fellow at Cooper University Healthcare in Camden, NJ

Yi-Chyan Chen, MD, PhD, currently Director, Department of Psychiatry, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualian, Taiwan

Maxine Norcross, BS, currently at NIMH

Tara Wright, BS, currently at University of North Carolina

Michael Feyder, PhD, currently at Brain Modulation Lab, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, PA

Jessica Ihne Reed, PhD, currently postdoc at NIMH

Susanna Weber, BS, currently at Gottingen University

Lauren Lederle, MD, currently at San Fransisco VA Medical Center

Benita Hurd, MD, currently regional anethesia fellow at Emory University 


Dr. Timothy J. Bussey and Dr. Lisa M. Saksida, Robarts Research Institute, Western University; Weblink

Dr. Tom Kash, University of North Carolina; Weblink

Dr. David Lovinger, Dr. Veronica Alvarez, Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, NIAAA; Weblink

Dr. Sachin Patel, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Weblink

Dr. Mario Penzo, Unit on the Neurobiology of Affective Memory, NIMH; Weblink

Dr. Danny Winder, Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Weblink

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