Dr. David Goldman

David Goldman M.D., Section Chief
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

National Institutes of Health
5625 Fishers Lane, Room 3S-32:MSC 9412
Bethesda  MD 20892-9412
telephone: +1 301.443.0059
fax: +1 301.480.2839

Serves as the Section Chief of Human Neurogenetics, NIAAA

Human Neurogenetics identifies functional loci that modulate pathways to vulnerability to alcoholism, other addictions, and related psychiatric disorders. To accomplish this it generates clinical datasets and collaborates with multiple laboratories. Its activities encompass human research protocols, large scale SNP detection using massively parallel sequencing, array and capillary electrophoresis based genotyping, in vitro and in vivo functional analyses of receptor variants, linkage studies of markers and candidate alleles, genome linkage scans, genome-wide associations, genome-wide epigenetic analyses, transcriptome analyses, and genome informatics. 


Current Staff:

Mary-Anne Enoch, M.D.

Mary-Anne Enoch, MD
Mary-Anne Enoch, M.D., (Staff Scientist) has been with LNG since 1995. As a Principal Investigator on human research protocols, she has collected large, comprehensive psychiatric and electrophysiological datasets of U.S. Caucasians, Plains American Indians and Southeastern American Indians. Her research interests include the influence of genes in biological pathways on addiction, the interactive effects of childhood trauma and stress-related genes on vulnerability to alcoholism-related behaviors, and the use of intermediate phenotypes such as electrophysiological measures and dimensional anxiety for understanding the genetics and neurobiology of alcoholism and co-morbid disorders. Dr Enoch is a longstanding member of the NIH Neuroscience IRB.

Colin Hodgkinson, Ph.D.

Colin Hodgkinson

Colin Hodgkinson, Ph.D. (Staff Scientist) joined LNG in 2003 and leads the DNA/Data core. He directs high throughput sequencing and genotyping, genetic linkage, and functional genetic analyses and oversees the iPSC production. He has used GWAS to identify multiple genes influencing the electroencephalogram, and to analyze the genetic determinants of suicide. He is currently using NGS to identify genes in animal models (mouse, rat, fruit fly) selected for varied response to alcohol and other drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine). He is also identifying candidate genes for Borderline Personality Disorder through screening for rare variants by exome sequencing.


Kornel Schuebel, Ph.D.
Kornel Schuebel, Ph.D.

Kornel Schuebel, Ph.D. (Staff Scientist) joined LNG in 2008. He is intimately involved with all aspects of genome-wide discovery including DNA methylation, chromatin, and RNA metabolism as it pertains to gene expression alterations in pathological brain disorders. Dr. Schuebel directs analyses with the ABI SOLiD, ABI 5500XL and pipelines enabling massively parallel sequencing.


Zhifeng Zhou, Ph.D.
Zhifeng Zhou, Ph.D.,

Zhifeng Zhou, Ph.D., with LNG since 2002, is a molecular biologist who works on human and animal genetic models to uncover genetic variations, gene expression and epigenetic changes related to alcohol and drug addictions. Dr. Zhou conducted research projects which uncovered multilevel effects of haplotype-based Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression variation on emotion and identified extensive common and substance-specific changes in genome-wide transcription and histone methylation in postmortem hippocampus of cocaine addicts and alcoholics. His work using selectively bred animal lines also identified a causal role of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) in altered alcohol preference in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

Qiaoping Yuan, Ph.D.
Qiaoping Yuan, Ph.D.,

Qiaoping Yuan, Ph.D., who joined LNG in 2005, is a bioinformatics and analytical IT tools resource for all members of LNG.  He is in the DNA/Data Core where he leads genome informatics including creating analytic frameworks and pathways for the next-gen sequencer data.  He is involved in all LNG genomics projects (e.g. sequence variation discovery, whole genome association, expression profiling, epigenome and mutaome analysis), both at the front end of designing arrays and planning analyses and at the analytical phases.


Pei-Hong Shen, M.S.
Pei-Hong Shen, M.S.,

Pei-Hong Shen, M.S., who joined LNG in 2004, is involved in all aspects of data analysis and data management to identify genetic variation, define molecular functionality, and link genetic variation to intermediate phenotypes and complex behavior. She is a bioinformatics and analytical IT tools resource for all members of LNG. 


Chery Marietta, M.S.
Chery Marietta, M.S.

Cheryl Marietta, M.S., with NIAAA since 1980, is a Senior Research Assistant in the lab.  She currently leads the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC’s) team in the generation and tracking of the iPSC lines from PBMC’s to iPSC’s and their characterization.   She is involved in generating neurons from the generated iPSC’s and using CRISPR techniques in iPSC’s to study gene expression.   She also helps others with Western blotting, gene expression using Taqman gene expression assays, genotyping using Taqman genotyping assays, and sequencing using the Ion Proton. She is the Chairperson of the NIAAA Safety Committee.


Longina Akhtar, M.S.
Longina Akhtar, M.S.,

Longina Akhtar, M.S., with LNG since 1983, manages the front-end of multiple collaborations requiring establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC’s), preparation of DNA and/or lymphoblastoid cell lines. She performs or supervises all the primary cell culture, DNA extractions from cells and blood, and cell storage – including off-site backup. She assists in genotyping and the construction of DNA panels for linkage studies. Her position is broad in scope and responsibility in that she is the direct and frequent point of interaction with many collaborating investigators. 


Elisa Moore
Elisa Moore

Elisa Moore, Sr. Systems Analysis/Specialist and Robotics, has been with LNG since 1993. She plans, designs, and implements information systems that meet LNG’s unique and demanding bioinformatics requirements. She designed network VLAN’s enabling terabyte data-flows between next-generation sequencers, cluster servers and mass storage arrays. She supports specialized computers on DNA sequencers, analyzers and real-time PCR equipment. She also programs DNA liquid handling robotics and works on other “front-end” aspects of high throughput genetic analysis. 


Miri Gitik, Ph.D.
Miri Gitik
Miri Gitik, Ph.D., is an IRTA fellow from the Hebrew University, Israel appointed in 2013.  She is interested in understanding how epigenetic mechanisms regulate psychiatric disorders with a focus on nicotine addiction. By developing cellular models and using next generation sequencing technologies she is investigating the role of DNA methylation and methylation altering genes in nicotine dependence and withdrawal.
Lucia Guerri, Ph.D.
Lucia Guerri
Lucia Guerri, Ph.D. is a Visiting Fellow who joined LNG in 2014. Previously, she studied molecular biology at the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina (2000-2006); obtained her Ph.D. in cellular immunology at the Curie Institute in Paris, France (2010); and continued with a postdoctoral position on genetics of immunology at the Max Planck Institute in Freiburg, Germany. Dr Guerri joined LNG to pursue her other longstanding interest: studying psychiatric disorders, particularly of the reward system. Her research focuses on changes in gene expression that underlie altered dopamine signaling in the addicted brain.
Jessica Hoffman, Ph.D.
Jessica Hoffman
Jessica Hoffman, Ph.D., joined LNG as an IRTA Fellow in 2014.  She collaborates with Dr. Peter Schmidt (NIMH) to examine molecular and genetic differences in sex steroid hormone response in women with hormone-related mood disorders such as Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), Perimenopausal Depression (PMD), and Postpartum Depression (PMD).  Using lymphoblast cell cultures from women in a hormone suppression and add-back clinical trial, whole transcriptome (RNA-seq) and protein analysis identified the ESC/E(Z) complex, responsible for gene silencing, as differentially expressed at baseline and following hormone exposure in women with PMDD.  NGS on exomes and ChIP-seq is being conducted to further understand the basis of this expression difference.  Additionally, Dr. Hoffman is developing a protocol for differentiation of human iPSCs into serotonergic neurons to study how these genetic differences may play a functional role in neural signaling and behavior.
Allison Goff, M.A.  
Alison Goff
Allison Goff, M.A. joined LNG in 2015. She is a Pre-Doctoral candidate at Georgetown University whose co-advisors are Dr. Peter Schmidt (NIMH) and Dr. David Goldman. 



Selected Publications:

1: Kwako LE, Momenan R, Litten RZ, Koob GF, Goldman D. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Addictive Disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 17. pii: S0006-3223(15)00954-3.
Neuroscience measures of domains important in the “addiction cycle” can enhance clinical science and research.

2: Peciña M, Martínez-Jauand M, Hodgkinson C, Stohler CS, Goldman D, Zubieta JK. FAAH selectively influences placebo effects. Mol Psychiatry. 2014;19: 385-391
A functional polymorphism of FAAH, which metabolizes the endocannabinoid anandamide, has been linked to alcoholism and other behaviors, and here, in a neuroimaging paradigm to pain/placebo response.

3: Zhou Z, Karlsson C, Liang T, Xiong W, Kimura M, Tapocik JD, Yuan Q, Barbier E, Feng A, Flanigan M, Augier E, Enoch MA, Hodgkinson CA, Shen PH, Lovinger DM, Edenberg HJ, Heilig M, Goldman D. Loss of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 escalates alcohol consumption. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110: 16963-16968. In the artificially selected alcohol preferring (P) rat, a stop codon in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 leads to uncompensated loss of function, escalated alcohol consumption, and changes in expression of a network of glutamate genes, pointing to a role for this gene and glutamate function in alcoholism.

4: Yuan Q, Zhou Z, Lindell SG, Higley JD, Ferguson B, Thompson RC, Lopez JF, Suomi SJ, Baghal B, Baker M, Mash DC, Barr CS, Goldman D. The rhesus macaque is three times as diverse but more closely equivalent in damaging coding variation as compared to the human. BMC Genet. 2012; 13:52.
At a genome wide level, humans are less diverse than primates to which we are evolutionarily related, but closer to them in terms of variation that is potentially damaging.

5: Enoch MA, Zhou Z, Kimura M, Mash DC, Yuan Q, Goldman D. GABAergic gene expression in postmortem hippocampus from alcoholics and cocaine addicts; corresponding findings in alcohol-naïve P and NP rats. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29369.
This study confirmed the involvement of the GABAergic system in alcohol use disorders but also revealed a hippocampal GABA input in cocaine addiction. Congruent findings in human addicts and P rats provide clues to predisposing factors for alcohol and drug addiction.

6: Bevilacqua L, Carli V, Sarchiapone M, George DK, Goldman D, Roy A, Enoch MA. Interaction between FKBP5 and childhood trauma and risk of aggressive behavior. JAMA Psychiatry. 2012; 69: 62-70.
This was the first study to show that childhood trauma and FKBP5 gene variants interact to increase the risk of overt aggressive behavior.

7: Goldman, D.  Our Genes, Our Choices, Elsevier (Academic Press), 2012. 
How free will emerges from neurogenetic individuality and self-guided neurodevelopmental plasticity.

8: Enoch M-A, Gorodetsky E, Hodgkinson CA, Roy A, Goldman D. Functional Genetic Variants that Increase Synaptic Serotonin and 5-HT3 Receptor Sensitivity Predict Alcohol and Drug Dependence. Mol Psychiatry 2011; 16: 1139-1146
This study demonstrated the utility of investigating genetic influences on neurotransmitter pathways for identifying risk for alcohol and drug dependence.

9: Roy A, Gorodetsky E, Yuan Q, Goldman D, Enoch M-A. The Interaction of FKBP5, a Stress Related Gene, with Childhood Trauma Increases the Risk for Attempting Suicide. Neuropsychopharmacology 2010; 35: 1674-1683.
This study has shown that childhood trauma and FKBP5 gene variants interact to increase the risk for suicidal behavior, at least in African American substance dependent treatment-seeking patients.

10: Bevilacqua L, Doly S, Kaprio J, Yuan Q, Tikkanen R, Paunio T, Zhou Z, Wedenoja J, Maroteaux L, Diaz S, Belmer A, Hodgkinson CA, Dell'osso L, Suvisaari J, Coccaro E, Rose RJ, Peltonen L, Virkkunen M, Goldman D. A population-specific HTR2B stop codon predisposes to severe impulsivity. Nature 2010; 468: 1061-1066.
This discovery of a population specific stop codon leading to severe impulsivity has implications for several psychiatric diseases and represents the first successful application of deep sequencing for gene discovery in complex diseases.

11: Hodgkinson CA, Enoch M-A, Srivastava V, Cummins-Oman JS, Ferrier C, Iarikova P, Sankararaman S, Yamini G, Yuan Q, Zhou Z, Albaugh B, White KV, Shen P-H, Goldman D. Genome-wide association identifies candidate genes that influence the human electroencephalogram. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010; 107: 8695-8700.
This genome wide association study (GWAS) of a heritable intermediate phenotype for alcoholism and other psychiatric diseases detected multiple genome-wide significant loci.

12: Enoch M-A, Hodgkinson CA, Yuan Q, Shen P-H, Goldman D, Roy A. The Influence of GABRA2, Childhood Trauma and their Interaction on Alcohol, Heroin and Cocaine Dependence. Biol Psychiatry 2010; 67: 20-27.
The results of this study suggest that at least in African-American men, childhood trauma, GABRA2 variation, and their interaction play a role in risk-resilience for substance dependence.

13: Hong LE, Hodgkinson CA, Yang Y, Sampath H, Ross TJ, Buchholz B, Salmeron BJ, Srivastava V, Thaker GK, Goldman D, Stein EA. A genetically modulated, intrinsic cingulate circuit supports human nicotine addiction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010; 107: 13509-13514.
This imaging genetic study reveals part of the mechanism of action of CHRNA5 Asn398Asp in nicotine addiction.

14: Anton RF, Oroszi G, O’Malley S, Couper D, Swift R, Pettinati H, Goldman D: An Evaluation of μ-Opioid Receptor (OPRM1) as a Predictor of Naltrexone Response in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008; 65: 135-144.
This study represents a critical replication of the pharmacogenetic predictive use of a functional OPRM1 missense variant in alcoholics treated with naltrexone.

15: Zhou Z, Zhu G, Hariri A, Enoch M-A, Scott D, Sinha R, Virkkunen M, Mash D, Lipsky R, Hu X-Z, Hodgkinson C, Xu K, Buzas B, Yuan Q, Shen P-H, Ferrell R, Manuck S, Brown S, Hauger R, Stohler C, Zubieta J-K, Goldman D.  Genetic variation in human NPY expression affects stress response and emotion. Nature 2008; 452(7190): 997-1001.
In a multilevel analysis of complex behavior, a functional haplotype, and functional loci were identified at the gene for neuropeptide Y, an anxiolytic neuropeptide. There were modest but significant effects of NPY haplotype on complex behavior but much stronger effects in two stress/emotion brain imaging paradigms and on neuropeptide and mRNA expression, including molecular expression in postmortem brain.

16: Sjöberg RL, Ducci F, Barr CS, Newman TK, Dell'osso L, Virkkunen M, Goldman D. A non-additive interaction of a functional MAO-A VNTR and testosterone predicts antisocial behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology 2008; 33: 425-430.
In the first gene x endocrine interaction study in psychiatric genetics the low expression MAOA allele was shown to be permissive for the effect of testosterone to increase aggression in males. The impetus for the study is an androgen response element in the MAOA promoter.

17: Hu X, Lipsky R, Zhu G, Akhtar L, Taubman J, Greenberg BD, Xu K, Arnold P, Richter M, Kennedy JL, Murphy D, Goldman D. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Gain-of-function Genotypes Are Linked to Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Am J Hum Genet 2006; 78: 815-826.
A novel, common, functional allele was discovered in psychiatric genetics’ most often studied locus. Function was demonstrated via in vivo and in vitro experiments including decoy DNA for the specific transcription factor whose binding is altered by the SNP.

18: Zubieta JK, Heitzeg MM, Smith YR, Bueller JA, Xu K, Xu Y, Koeppe RA, Stohler CS, Goldman D. COMT val158met genotype affects mu-opioid neurotransmitter responses to a pain stressor. Science 2003; 299(5610):1240-1243.
This is one of the first imaging genetics papers, relating a functional polymorphism to variation in human pain and emotional response.

19: Hariri AR, Mattay VS, Tessitore A, Kolachana B, Fera F, Goldman D, Egan MF, Weinberger DR. Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science 2002; 297(5580): 400-403.
This is one of the first imaging genetics papers, relating a functional polymorphism to variation in human emotional response.